Male infertility: Diagnosis and therapies for low sperm count in men

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    Infertility affects about 5 million couples, making it a major problem. In at least half of all instances, male factors are the primary or contributory cause. Check out these treatments and therapies for diagnosing and treating male infertility and low sperm count.

    Because male partners might have Oligozoospermia (low sperm count), Asthenozoospermia (poor motility), teratozoospermia, or Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, men are as responsible for infertility as females (OAT). OAT is the most frequent kind of male infertility, however, patients may also have Azoospermia, which occurs when no sperm can be identified in a man’s sperm and affects up to 10% to 15% of infertile men.

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    “There can be many factors that can cause the above conditions like genetics factors, abnormal hormone levels, anti-sperm antibodies, infections of the reproductive system, lifestyle habits and choices like alcohol consumption, smoking, and illegal drugs, trauma, infection, surgery in the pelvic area, inflammation, vasectomy, a cyst, cystic fibrosis gene mutation that can cause the abnormal development,” said Dr Ankush Raut, Senior Fertility Consultant at Apollo Fertility.

    Male infertility: Diagnosis and therapies for low sperm count in men

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    “Today, because of advancements in the field of ART, assisted reproductive technology treatment is possible in almost all cases of male infertility if we do proper evaluation and diagnosis,” he said, emphasising the importance of diagnosing the underlying condition so that appropriate treatment can be given.

    A general physical examination and medical history are essential for diagnosis. Aside from that, the most significant inquiry is sperm analysis. In sperm analysis, we look at the amount of sperm present, its morphology, and its motility. Aside from that, in circumstances when a DNA fragmentation index is necessary, it can also be performed.”

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    He emphasised that a scrotal ultrasound can help us detect whether there is a varicocele or other issues in the testicles and supporting structures-

    • He recommended that a blood test for testosterone and other hormone levels be performed.
    • In situations of Azoospermia, post-ejaculation urinalysis, genetic testing, and testicular biopsy are all necessary.
    • Male infertility treatments begin with a change in lifestyle. Having sexual contact every day or every other day within a viable window increases the odds of pregnancy.
    • The use of lubricants should be avoided. Astroglide or K-Y jelly, lotions, and saliva may affect sperm motility and function.
    • Maintain a healthy lifestyle. Eat nutritious meals, keep a healthy weight, get adequate sleep, and exercise on a regular basis. Stop or minimise your alcohol consumption, quit smoking, and avoid using illegal substances. Coenzyme Q10, folic acid and zinc combination, L-carnitine, Selenium, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E can all aid.
    • Aside from a healthy lifestyle, antibiotic therapy for infection, surgery if a substantial varicocele is present, medication or counselling to boost fertility in problems such as erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation, hormone therapies and drugs can help you conceive.
    • ICSI (Intracytoplasmic sperm injection), P-ICSI, TESA, Micro TESA, Noasera, and other assisted reproductive treatments can aid with pregnancy even in situations with OATS, Obstructive and non-obstructive Azoospermia.

    In the end, virtually all cases of male factor infertility can be treated. The most critical aspect is an accurate examination, diagnosis, and therapy. “More than five million couples suffer from infertility, making it a prevalent issue,” says Dr Anu Sadashiv, Reproductive Medicine Specialist at Milann Fertility and Birthing Hospital in Bangalore’s KumaraPark. Infertility affects one out of every six couples seeking to conceive. In at least half of all instances, male factors are the primary or contributory cause. Fortunately, having infertility issues does not preclude you from having a child with your spouse. There are procedures and treatments available to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.”

    She stated that determining the cause of infertility may need a number of diagnoses, including:

    • Examining your genitalia and asking about any inherited disorders—ongoing health difficulties, diseases, injuries, or procedures that may affect your fertility—are all part of this process.
    • By using a specific condom during intercourse or by employing Semen Analysis, which must be taken out into a specified container at the doctor’s office.
    • Hormone testing is recommended because hormonal or organ system disorders may play a role in infertility. 
    • A blood test can assess the amount of testosterone and other hormones in the body.

    She mentioned that your doctor may recommend more tests to help you discover the cause of your infertility. These might include:

    • Scrotal ultrasound, transrectal ultrasound, post-ejaculation urinalysis, testicular biopsy, and genetic testing are all options.
    • A fertility specialist will select the best treatment plan for your unique scenario.

    Male infertility: Diagnosis and therapies for low sperm count in men

    According to her, depending on the reason for infertility, the following therapies may be used:


    For example, a varicocele may commonly be surgically repaired, as can a clogged vas deferens. A previous vasectomy can be reversed. When there is no sperm in the ejaculate, sperm may usually be removed directly from the testicles or epididymis utilising sperm retrieval methods.

    Infection treatment

    Antibiotics can be used to treat an infection of the reproductive system.

    Treatments for sexual intercourse problems

    In situations of erectile dysfunction or early ejaculation, medication or counselling can help improve fertility.

    Medications and hormonal therapies

    When infertility is caused by high or low levels of certain hormones, or by problems with how the body processes hormones, your doctor may recommend hormone replacement or medications.

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ART)

    ART therapies may entail collecting sperm by natural ejaculation, surgical extraction, or from donors, depending on the unique scenario and desires. Following that, the sperm are utilised for intracytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro fertilisation, or insertion into the female vaginal canal.

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