Uncovering Causes of Unexplained Infertility: Solutions for Men and Women

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    Individuals and couples may be frustrated by the issue of unexplained infertility. Here are some possible causes and cures for unexplained infertility.

    When a couple is unable to produce a child despite repeated efforts, chances are that one of the partners, or both, is infertile, and it is tough for anybody, man or woman, to admit that they are experiencing fertility troubles. Infertility is a delicate subject that elicits a wide range of feelings in both men and women because it generates friction in a couple’s relationship, deteriorating the affected couple’s physical, mental, and emotional health.

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    Unexplained infertility occurs when a couple or person has performed all of the appropriate testing but the doctor is unable to establish a particular cause.

    Unexplained infertility is a condition in which couples or individuals fail to conceive a child despite several tries. The situation of unexplained infertility is prevalent among couples and individuals, and while it may cause frustration among people and couples, it does not indicate that it cannot be cured.

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    According to Dr Beena Muktesh, reproductive Specialist at Motherhood Hospitals in Gurugram, unexplained infertility is an umbrella medical term used by healthcare practitioners to describe infertility without being able to establish a cause after completing various reproductive tests. According to her, health specialists conclude unexplained infertility when the tests signify –

    1. There are no uterine abnormalities or structural problems in a woman’s uterus.
    2. Ovulation takes place at regular intervals.
    3. When the fallopian tubes are not clogged.
    4. When one’s ovarian reserve or egg count is adequate.
    5. When the brain generates normal or appropriate quantities of the hormones needed for reproduction.
    6. When a man’s sperm analysis is normal, including sperm count, quantity, motility, and morphology.

    She highlighted that the causes of unexplained infertility are unknown; nevertheless, the following are potential causes of unexplained infertility in men and women:

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    An undiscovered underlying problem: 

    Because every person’s body processes vary, the causes of unexplained fertility might be an underlying medical condition such as diabetes or thyroid disease, which may lead to infertility.


    Endometriosis is a disorder that affects the female reproductive system in which tissue comparable to the uterine lining develops outside the uterus. Mild endometriosis or endometriosis without symptoms might cause difficulties and lead to infertility.

    Cervical mucus: 

    This type of fluid generated and secreted from the cervix or uterine entrance assists the sperm in swimming to meet the egg during ovulation. If the cervical mucus is too thick or includes particular chemicals, the sperm cannot move between the cervix and vagina to produce an embryo.

    Egg quality:

    When the quality of an egg deteriorates owing to age or other circumstances, the chances of infertility rise.

    Sperm quality: 

    As with egg quality, a decline in sperm quality, count, or motility contributes to unexplained infertility.

    Endometrium lining:

    The endometrium is the uterine lining to which the embryo adheres and develops during the pregnancy stages. When a fertilised egg is unable to implant on the uterine lining, it may result in a failed pregnancy attempt.

    Inadequately timed intercourse: 

    The frequency or timing of sexual intercourse does not correspond to the ovulation process.

    Dr Suparna Bhattacharya, Fertility Consultant at Nova IVF Fertility East in Kolkata’s Uttam Kumar Sarani, expressed her experience on the subject, saying that unexplained infertility does not have a particular cause, however, in males, a few explanations include –

    • Sperm quality, like egg quality, is critical for fertility.
    • When sexual intercourse does not occur at the same time as ovulation.
    • Childhood diseases or testicular trauma might cause vascular injuries that can harm the testicles.
    • Testicular torsion is a condition in which the testicle twists on its pedicle, causing blood flow problems.
    • Previous surgical procedures, such as bladder surgeries or testicular cancer surgery.
    • Heat exposure interacts with sperm temperature, causing impairment during sperm production.
    • Infertility has been linked to alcohol and smoking use.
    • The reproductive system can be harmed by a history of venereal disease or medicines.

    Potential causes of unexplained infertility in women include:


    Endometriosis is a female reproductive illness in which the tissues lining the uterus expand outside of the uterus and can be detected on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or intestines. Endometriosis, even in mild forms, can lead to infertility.

    Cervical mucus

    During ovulation, cervical mucus helps the sperm travel through the fallopian tubes to contact the egg. If the cervical mucus is clogged, the sperm is unable to move through the cervix and vagina, resulting in infertility.

    Egg quality

    The quality of the egg is vital for obtaining fertilisation because if the egg quality isn’t up to par, the fertilisation process is difficult to achieve.

    Uterine lining 

    Infertility can occur when the endometrium, or uterine lining, is unable to prepare itself for a fertilised egg.

    Unexplained infertility can be difficult and puzzling for couples or people; but, with the advent of technology, couples or individuals can find success in having a child by investigating alternative treatment approaches. Dr. Suparna Bhattacharya stated that despite infertility concerns, couples can select other techniques such as Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), a fertility treatment in which the fertilisation process takes place in a laboratory. A few ART therapies are as follows:

    Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) 

    Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) or artificial insemination is the process of washing, concentrating, and inserting sperm into a woman’s uterus during the ovulation phase. Gonadotropins, which include hormones that increase egg formation in females and can also treat low sperm count in men, are administered during the IUI technique, assisting in the treatment of unexplained infertility.

    In vitro fertilisation (IVF)

    In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a technique in which sperm and eggs are united to form embryos, which are subsequently implanted in the uterus. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a method in which sperm is injected directly into the egg during IVF.

    Aside from these treatments, Dr Suparna Bhattacharya stressed that changing an individual’s lifestyle is critical because it leads to infertility; hence, it is vital to –

    • A well-balanced diet will help you maintain a healthy weight.
    • Avoid drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and using recreational drugs.
    • Caffeine usage should be kept to a minimum.
    • Maintain your fitness by engaging in physical activity.
    • Use protection during intercourse to lower your risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STIs).

    Unexplained infertility does not imply that the cause cannot be identified or addressed because, thanks to such modern advances, couples may visit a doctor about various alternative therapies while remaining positive throughout the process.

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